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Acronyms and Definitions

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AASHTOAmerican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AASHTO is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines used in highway design and construction throughout the US. AASHTO advocates transportation-related policies and provides technical services to support states in their efforts to efficiently and safely move people and goods. Although most of its activities are specific to highways, it also represents air, rail, water and public transportation.
ACTTAccelerated Construction Technology Transfer
The American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) jointly funded and conducted a three-day workshop for the NHDOT. The workshop brought together and utilized the expertise of approximately 25 transportation professionals from around the nation. ACTT was a strategic process that looked at using innovative techniques and technologies to reduce construction time on the I-93 project while enhancing safety and improving quality, summarizing its recommendations in the ACTT Final Report.
Ad Date or Ad Year
The date or year the official notice of a government agency’s search for qualified bidders on a government or public sector construction project is posted or is anticipated to be posted.
ADTAverage Daily Traffic
The total volume of vehicles passing a point or segment of a roadway, in both directions, during a 24-hour period. A study is usually conducted over a period of a number of days. The total is then divided by the number of days in the time period to yield the average daily traffic.
Advertisement of Bids
The official notice of a government agency’s search for qualified bidders on a government or public sector construction project.
ANEIAntioch New England Institute
ANEI is a consulting and community outreach department of Antioch University New England. ANEI promotes a vibrant and sustainable environment, economy, and society by encouraging informed civic engagement. ANEI was chosen by the NHDOT to facilitate the Community Technical Assistance Program (CTAP).
Abutment
Generally, the point where two structures or objects meet. A masonry platform or earth embankment supporting the central structure of a bridge; end support of a bridge superstructure. Used to transmit the reaction of superstructure to the foundations, to retain the earth filling, and to connect the superstructure to the approach roads.
Anti-icing
The snow and ice control practice of preventing the formation or development of bonded snow and ice by timely applications of a chemical freezing-point depressant. Application of a salt brine solution to road surfaces before snow or ice can accumulate makes snow removal easier because less ice forms on the road surface. This reduces the amount of salt that must be applied to the road as well as the number of passes a plow must make to clear the road. Anti-icing has the potential to provide the benefit of increased traffic safety at the lowest cost and with less environmental impact.
BMPBest Management Practice
For purposes of stormwater management, structural, nonstructural and managerial techniques that are recognized to be the most effective and practical means to prevent or reduce nonpoint source pollutants from entering receiving waters.
Backfill
Material used to fill an excavated area; the act of replacing excavated material.
Bridge
A structure built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad track, river, body of water, or any other physical obstacle.
Bridge Major Rehabilitation
Reconstruction of a bridge which upgrades and retains significant elements of the old, such as abutments, beams or trusses.
Bridge Replacement
Construction of a new bridge where no structural elements of the old are incorporated into the new.
C&GClearing & Grubbing
Use of bulldozers, pay-loaders, backhoes, tractor scrapers and dump trucks to prepare a corridor in advance of construction activities. The term mostly applies to the removal of vegetation (trees, bushes, etc.) within the anticipated work zone.
CLFConservation Law Foundation
The CLF is a non-profit, member supported environmental advocacy organization, working to protect New England's people, natural resources and communities. The CLF works to promote renewable energy and fight air and water pollution, build healthy fishing communities and protect marine habitats, fight sprawl, promote public transit, and defend public health. For information regarding the injunction the CLF placed on the I-93 project, click here.
CTAPCommunity Technical Assistance Program
A comprehensive 3.5M program established by the DOT to provide technical assistance in planning for growth to the 26 towns and cities influenced by the I-93 improvements. The program is helping communities meet the wide range of challenges faced in the region by providing access to tools for innovative land-use planning. CTAP is a major initiative involving state and federal agencies, regional planning commissions and several non-governmental organizations as well as the 26 CTAP communities.
Cumulative Impact Analyses
Defined by the National Environmental Protection Agency as the impact on the environment which results from the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions, regardless of what agency or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.
Camber
In road contstruction a camber is the convex curvature of a road.
Cofferdam
A temporary structure designed to keep water and/or soil out of an excavation in which a bridge pier or other structure is to be built. It provides a safe environment in which to work and allows excavation and construction of structures in an otherwise poor environment. Materials used to construct cofferdams can typically be reused on other projects. Cofferdam photo
Community
A group of people residing in the same place and under the same government; spatially defined places such as towns or cities.
Contra-flow
Contra-flow refers to plans that reverse the normal flow of traffic, typically on a controlled access highway (such as I-93). This is done to either aid in an emergency evacuation, as part of routing maintenance activities, or, as with I-93, to facilitate widening or reconstruction of a highway. In the Exit 3 area, for Contract 13933N, temporary crossovers will be used to place the SB traffic on the recently constructed section of the future NB roadway.
Contract Specifications
The requirements which are to be followed in the construction of the highway. The standard specifications, supplemental specifications, special provisions, and all written or printed agreements and instructions that pertain to the method and manner of performing the work, or to the quantity and quality of the material to be furnished under the contract.
Corridor
An area of variable width between two points where the needs for improvement are studied. The study includes, but is not limited to, social, economic, and environmental considerations, and alternatives for an area. The Rebuilding I-93 project area spans the I-93 corridor from the NH/MA state line to the I-295 split in Manchester.
CTAP Communities
Although Windham, Salem, Derry, Londonderry and Manchester directly abut the I-93 corridor, 21 other communities may experience growth or other effects as well. They are: Allenstown, Atkinson, Auburn, Bedford, Bow, Candia, Chester, Concord, Danville, Deerfield, Dunbarton, Fremont, Goffstown, Hampstead, Hooksett, Hudson, Litchfield, Pelham, Pembroke, Raymond, and Sandown.
DEISDraft Environmental Impact Study
Preliminary written summary of probable effects a highway project will have on the environment, especially the human environment. Following a period of public review and comment, the Final Environmental Impact Study I-93 FEIS was developed.
DMSDynamic Message Sign
Electronic signs along the highway that can change the message they display. They communicate real-time information allowing motorists to make quick decisions in response to roadway or adverse weather conditions. Also referred to as Variable Message Signs (VMS).
Design
The engineering process that occurs before a project can be built. During the design phase a project's detailed configuration and construction requirements are determined with the production of technical specifications, drawings and cost estimates.
Design Capacity
The number of vehicles per lane that passes any given point in an hour on an average day during good operating conditions. The I-93 improvements have been designed to accommodate projected traffic well into the future.
De-icing
The process of removing ice and accumulated snow from a road surface. Calcium chloride is the most commonly used deicer as it is readily available and the least expensive to purchase. Road surfaces are generally not treated and plowed until two or more inches of snow have accumulated. It has been documented that the majority of salt that reaches surface and ground waters comes from private and municipal roads and parking lots, and poorly stored calcium chloride supplies.
Diamond Interchange
A common interchange configuration formed when a one-way diagonal ramp is provided in each quadrant.
Emergency Route
As it relates to I-93, the establishment of alternative routes for reducing or eliminating backups occurring due to an incident on the interstate. They are not meant to be used to facilitate construction, but to bypass sections of the interstate impacted by an incident. (Factsheet)
FEISFinal Environmental Impact Study
The Final Environmental Impact Statement (I-93 FEIS) documents the Environmental Impact Study (EIS) process. It includes the detailed environmental analysis of the study alternatives and the Selected Alternative to carry forward. It refines the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to address comments and concerns raised during the public hearing and comment period, contains a record of the disposition of the comments received, and denotes the commitments to address and mitigate possible impacts associated with the Selected Alternative.
FHWAFederal Highway Administration
The division of the United States Department of Transportation, formerly the Bureau of Public Roads, that specializes in highway transportation. One of the agency's major activities is the Federal-Aid Highway Program, which oversees federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway System - primarily interstates, US routes and most state routes. FHWA oversees the projects using federal funds to ensure that the federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to.
FTAFederal Transit Administration
The FTA is one of ten modal administrations within the US Department of Transportation. The FTA administers federal funding to support a variety of locally planned, constructed and operated public transportation systems throughout the United States, including buses, subways, light rail, commuter rail, streetcars, monorail, passenger ferryboats, inclined railways and people movers. It is a member of the Stakeholder Committee for the NHDOT I-93 Transit Investment Study.
GARVEEGrant Anticipation Revenue Vehicle
GARVEE Bonds are a financing instrument that enables states to fund transportation projects based on anticipated receipt of future federal funds. Specifically, states can issue GARVEE bonds for transportation projects using future federal highway funds to repay the principal, interest, and any other costs associated with the issuance of the bonds.
Girder
A support beam used in construction; the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams. Girder photo
HAZMATHazardous Material
A solid, liquid or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property or the environment.
HOVHigh Occupancy Vehicle
High Occupancy Vehicle lane is a traffic lane reserved for vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers.
ITSIntelligent Transportation Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) involves the use of electronics, computers and communications equipment to collect information, process it and take appropriate actions. These technologies have the capacity to relieve congestion, improve safety and mobility, and enhance productivity. The Rebuilding I-93 project is already employing portable variable message signs (VMS), 511, Highway Advisory Radio (HAR), real-time photos to the project website and email notifications to subscribers.
Infrastructure
Structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure. Most widely used to refer to roads, airports and utilities.
Interchange
Type of road junction that typically uses grade separation and one or more ramps to permit traffic on at least one road to pass through the junction without crossing any other traffic stream. A system of interconnecting roadways providing for the free movement of traffic between two or more roadways on different levels.
LOSLevel of Service
As related to highways, the different operating conditions that occur on a lane or roadway when accommodating various traffic volumes. It is a qualitative measure of the effect of traffic flow factors such as speed and travel time, interruption, freedom to maneuver, driver comfort and convenience and, indirectly, safety and operating costs. It is expressed as levels "A" through "F", with "A" indicating free flowing traffic and "F" indicating stopped traffic.
Lane Closure
A lane of traffic closed to vehicles, generally to accommodate construction activities.
Lane Mile
One mile of a two-lane highway equals two lane miles. If there are four miles of two-lane highway, there are eight actual lane miles to maintain.
Lane Shift
Shifting of a roadway to move lanes of traffic to either the left or right of their current position. Temporary lane shifts are often used during construction while work is underway in either the roadway's median or the outside shoulder.
MSE WallMechanically Stabilized Earthen Wall
Segmented pre-cast retaining wall that supports earth-fill embankments. MSE walls utilize horizontal metal straps buried in the fill as anchor points. MSE walls were constructed at the Cross Street Bridge work site.
Mainline
A principal artery generally constructed to higher standards than secondary roads and designed for greater capacity.
Mitigation
Actions or design features that reduce a project's impact on environmental resources. Mitigation actions will avoid, minimize and/or compensate for adverse effects on the environment.
NGONon-Governmental Agencies
Legally constituted organizations created by private persons or organizations with no participation or representation of any government. In cases where NGOs are partially or totally funded by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status as long as no government representatives are part of the organization. Examples of NGOs would include the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation and New Hampshire Housing Finance Authority.
NHDESNew Hampshire Department of Environmental Services
The DES mission is to help sustain a high quality of life for all citizens by protecting and restoring the environment and public health in New Hampshire. The department's responsibilities range from ensuring high levels of water quality for water supplies, ecological balance and recreational benefits, to regulating the emissions of air pollutants and fostering the proper management of municipal and industrial waste, to managing water quality resources for future generations.
NHDOTNew Hampshire Department of Transportation
The Department's responsibilities include planning, developing and maintaining a state transportation network which will provide for safe and convenient movement of people and goods through the state by means of a system of highways and railroads, air service, mass transit and other practicable modes of transportation in order to support state growth and economic development, and promote the general welfare of the citizens of the state.
NHOEPNew Hampshire Office of Energy & Planning
The OEP provides information, data, and guidance to assist decision makers on issues pertaining to development, land protection, energy use, and community planning. It guides the state's future growth through public policy development, education, research and partnership building.
NSPNonpoint Source Pollution
Pollution of surface or groundwater supplies originating from land use activities and/or the atmosphere, having no well-defined point of entry.
Off-Peak
Period outside the morning and afternoon rush hours when traffic is generally lightest.
PMProject Manager
The person or firm responsible for the planning, coordination and controlling of a project from inception to completion, meeting the project's requirements, and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards.
PNRPark-and-Ride
An arrangement whereby people can drive an automobile to a terminal, park in the designated lot and use car or van pooling, bus or other transit vehicles to their ultimate destination. At least three PNR facilities will be constructed as part of the I-93 improvements.
POCPublic Outreach Campaign
The mission statement of the NHDOT I-93 Public Outreach Campaign is: "Keep public informed about what we are doing, how it will impact them, and provide information about alternatives to minimize impacts." The campaign was launched as a pilot program concurrently with the beginning of construction activities in the Exit 1 area.
Peak Period
Weekday hours when traffic is usually heaviest, generally morning and afternoon/evening rush hours.
Pollutant
Anything introduced into the environment (soil, water, air) that degrades the usefulness of a resource.
Pretreatment
Techniques employed in stormwater Best Management Practices to provide removal (storage, filtration, etc.) and help trap coarse materials before they enter the system.
RODRecord of Decision
Prepared by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the ROD is a document presenting the basis for selecting and approving the specific alternative that was evaluated through the various environmental and engineering studies of the Transportation Project Development Process. The ROD identifies the alternative selected in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), other alternatives considered, measures recommended to minimize harm, monitoring or enforcement of programs, and an itemized list of commitments and mitigation measures. Essentially, the ROD is FHWA's approval of a project.
ROWRight-of-Way
Land acquired by purchase, gift, or eminent domain in order to build and maintain a public road or to install another public utility.
RWISRoadway Weather Information System
A combination of technologies that collects, transmits, models and disseminates weather and road condition information. Generally consists of a number of wireless weather stations (NH currently has 12), also known as environmental sensing stations, and pavement sensors. The information collected includes air and road surface temperatures, precipitation rate and type, wet/dry surface, dew point, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, traffic speed and counts, and visibility. Improved safety and reduced costs result from conveying accurate and timely roadway condition information to road maintenance and safety crews. Travelers can use the information to make better informed decisions regarding travel plans.
Ramp
A connecting roadway between two intersecting roads.
Reconfiguration
A rearrangement of parts or elements; a number of ramps will be reconfigured as part of the I-93 improvements.
Red-listed Bridges
New Hampshire's red-list identifies bridges requiring interim inspections due to known deficiencies, poor conditions, weight restrictions, or type of construction. These structures are inspected twice yearly. Six of the state's ten worst red-listed bridges are between Salem and Manchester on I-93, with a total of 18 red-list bridges on that 19.8 mile stretch of the I-93 Corridor, all of which will be replaced during the rebuilding of I-93.
Ride Sharing
A paratransit service with two or more persons in the vehicle consisting usually of a prearranged car pool, van pool or bus. More information and ride sharing opportunities are available at www.rideshare.nh.gov
Road Realignment
Activities that result in a new location for an existing road or portions of an existing road, including treatment of the old roadway.
Rolling Road Blocks
When roadway construction activities (e.g. placing bridge beams) are taking place in or above lanes of the roadway, rolling road blocks may be used to require traffic to be temporarily slowed rather than completely stopped. Traffic is paced at a safe speed controlled by pilot vehicles (i.e. law enforcement vehicles). Any on-ramps between the beginning of the pacing area and the work area are blocked until the pilot vehicle has passed. Two-way radios allow constant communications with the pilot vehicle, contractor's workers, flag men stationed at on-ramps, and the project engineer. The greatest benefits of rolling road blocks are the reduced risk of crashes due to stationary vehicles on the road and reduced project costs.
Runoff
Precipitation, snowmelt or irrigation that flows over the land, eventually making its way to a surface water body such as a stream, river or pond.
SEISSupplemental Environmental Impact Study
As a result of a lawsuit filed by the Conservation Law Foundation against the FHWA and NHDOT seeking an injunction against the I-93 improvements, the Court ordered the Department of Transportation to prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Study. The study is to address how induced population growth will impact the effectiveness of the four-lane alternative as a traffic congestion reduction measure, and how indirect effects of induced population growth will impact air quality and traffic on secondary roads. The DOT plans to present the document for comments in a public hearing in the Fall of 2008.
SWZSmart Work Zones
Smart Work Zones employ one or more Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) components to make travel through and around work zones safer and more efficient.
Scheduling
The process of developing a plan of operations to carry out the program. It involves breaking down the project into activities, setting starting and ending times for those activities, determining the resources required to perform the work, then adjusting the times as necessary to balance the resource requirements.
Selected Alternative
Out of the alternatives evaluated in the DEIS and FEIS, the Selected Alternative is the one chosen to advance to final design and construction.
Service Patrol
Also known as Courtesy Patrol, Highway Helpers, etc. the NHDOT is implementing a pilot program of five months, May 2008 through September 2008. The patrol operator will make a continuous loop from Exit 47 in Methuen, MA to Exit 3 in Windham during peak commuting times, stopping for any incidents encountered. The operator will be equipped to provide small amounts of fuel, water, air, and change tires. The service patrol operator will be in direct contact with the Transportation Management Center. Service Patrol photo
Signing/Signage
Visual method of providing vehicle drivers with guidance, warning and regulatory information along the highway.
Slip Ramp
A non-limited access road running parallel to a higher-speed road. A connector or type of interchange that allows a motorist to "slip" from one roadway to another.
Smart Growth
A pro-growth approach to guiding development into more convenient patterns and into areas where infrastructure allows growth to be sustained over the long term. It envisions developments of complementary land uses, including affordable and lifecycle housing, retail and offices, on interconnected streets amenable to walking, bicycling or using transit or car to reach destinations.
Sound Walls
Structures placed to mitigate noise pollution, sound walls serve a dual purpose of reducing noise and visual impacts as the affected site is shielded from the noise source by blocking line of sight, thus reducing transmission of sound waves.
Splice
A joining or joint connection of two or more pieces of linear materials.
Storm Drain
Designed to drain excess rain and ground water from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks and roofs, storm drains are present on most highways and other busy roads.
Storm Water Treatment
New Hampshire's storm water program requires storm water be treated to the maximum extent practicable prior to discharge. Grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, detention ponds and trenches are some methods used to minimize the impacts on existing hydrology and water quality. Stormwater Management
Structural Steel
Steel construction material formed with a specific shape and with certain standards for composition and strength.
TDMTransportation Demand Management
Programs and methods to reduce effective demand. In the broadest sense, any activity or facility that reduces vehicle trips would fall within this classification. The highest priority in the region is placed on reducing single-occupant vehicle trips in the peak periods. Alternatives include car pooling, van pooling, bus service transit, alternative work hours, etc.
TIMTraffic Incident Management
A planned and coordinated program process to detect, respond to, and remove traffic incidents and restore traffic capacity as safely and quickly as possible. This coordinated process involves a number of public and private sector partners.
TIMPTraffic Incident Management Plan
In accordance with NH Quick Clearance laws, the DOT and Department of Safety entered into an interagency Memorandum of Understanding to do on an urgent basis whatever is reasonable to: reduce the risk to roadway users and public safety responders, prevent secondary crashes and delays associated with incidents, protect the environment, and protect the public health.
TMCTransportation Management Center
The TMC was created to help better manage the NHDOT transportation network. The new central location for receiving, processing and disseminating vital information about the transportation system is located within the new State Emergency Operations Center in Concord. The TMC will increase the efficiency of New Hampshire's transportation network by reducing the time length of incidents on the highways, and keeping motorists informed so they can make decisions based upon real-time roadway conditions. TMC photo
TMDLTotal Maximum Daily Load
TMDL refers to the calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and attain or maintain water quality standards for its designated use. Additional background information on the I-93 Chloride Surface Water Quality Study currently being performed by the DOT, the DES and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is available here.
TMPTransportation Management Plan
A Transportation Management Plan (TMP) is a set of strategies for managing the work zone impacts of a project beyond traffic safety and control. The objectives of a TMP include providing the contractor a working window to complete meaningful work, reducing congestion and improving safety, increasing roadway capacity, and maintaining highway access for local communities.
TSCTechnical Steering Committee
As part of the Traffic Incident Management Plan for the I-93 Corridor, the adoption of a Technical Steering Committee was seen as critical to its implementation. The Committee consists of representatives from town fire and police departments and public works, as well as NH and MA State Police. The DOT feels that local leadership will ensure the TSC focuses on the items that are the most important to the towns.
Torque
Rotational force of the ability to overcome resistance to rotation.
VMSVariable Message Signs
Changeable traffic signs used on roadways to give travelers information about traffic congestion, accidents, incidents, road work zones, or speed limits. The information comes from a variety of traffic monitoring and surveillance systems. By providing real-time information, route selection can be improved, travel time reduced, and the severity and duration of incidents can be mitigated.
WQSWater Quality Standards
These standards determine the baseline water quality that all surface waters of the State must meet in order to protect their intended (designated) uses. They are the "yardstick" for identifying where water quality violations exist and for determining the effectiveness of regulatory pollution control.
Watershed
An area of land where all of the water that is under it, or drains off it, goes into the same place; an area of land that catches rain and snow and drains or seeps into a marsh, stream, river, lake or groundwater.
Wetlands
Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or where shallow water covers the land, and where at least one of the following attributes holds: 1) the land predominantly supports aquatic plants at least periodically; 2) un-drained, hydric soils are the predominant substrate; and 3) at some time during the growing season, the substrate is saturated with water or covered by shallow water. EPA definition is at http://www.epa.gov/emap/html/dataI/wetlands/). More simply, wetlands consist of areas inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of vegetation, typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions - swamps, marshes, bogs, etc. See the wetland sites affected by Rebuilding I-93 here.
Wildlife Habitat
An area that offers feeding, roosting, nesting, breeding and refuge for a variety of bird and/or mammal species native to the region. Developers that include natural greenbelts, wildlife corridors, stream corridors, wetlands and open space into their development plans have received high grades from environmentally aware individuals and groups.
 
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